the search for new areas of application of radio engineering methods in science, national economy and defense technology. li>
To accommodate the Institute, the former building of the Physics Institute and the Physics Department of the Moscow State University was set up on Mokhovaya Street, 11, where the Institute is located at the present time. The initiators of the Institute's formation, as well as the leaders of its first scientific divisions were the large scientists - academicians A.I. Berg (director-organizer), B.A. Vvedensky, N.D. Devyatkov, V.A. Kotelnikov (director of IRE from 1954 to 1987), V.V. Migulin, Corresponding Members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR D. V. Zernov, V. I. Siforov, A. A. Pistolkors, Doctor of Sciences A.G. Arenberg, V. I. Bunimovich, G. S. Gorelik, M.I. Elinson, M.E. Zhabotinsky, L.A. Zhekulin, S.G. Kalashnikov, Т.М. Lifshits, A.V. Sokolov, Z.S. Chernov, B.М. Tsarev, N.L. Yasnopolsky. Further great contribution to the formation and development of the Institute was made by Academician Yu.V. Guliaev, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Ya.E.Pokrovsky, Doctors N.A.Armand, M.S.Aleksandrov, E.N.Bazarov, A.E. Basharinov, V.L. Bonch-Bruevich, A.N. Vystavkin, V.N. Gubankov, S.N. Ivanov, B.Z. Katsenelenbaum, A.M. Kogan, M.A. Kolosov, V.B. Kravchenko, V.F. Krapivin, B.S. Kulvarskaya, V.E. Lyubchenko, V.V. Meriakri, Ya.E. Monosov, O.N. Rzhiga, V.B. Sandomirsky, O.I. Yakovlev and etc.
Academician Vladimir Alexandrovich Kotelnikov is one of the founders of modern radio engineering and computer science, a laureate of the Lenin and State Prizes, a prize of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, twice Hero of Socialist Labor - headed the Institute from 1954 to 1987. From 1987 to 2015, the Director of the Institute was a laureate of the European Physical Society Award, twice winner of the State Prizes of the USSR, laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation, academician Yuri Vasilyevich Gulyaev . At present, the Director of the Institute is Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, academician Sergey Apollonovich Nikitov .
In accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of June 3, 1955, No. 1075-622 of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the right to build a laboratory building, technical facilities and living quarters in Fryazino, Moscow Region for the Institute of Physics and Engineering of the USSR Academy of Sciences. By 1967 the construction of the Fryazino part of the IRE, as an isolated part of a single Institute with unified scientific departments and support units, was basically completed. Separate laboratories began to function practically since 1961. A great contribution to the construction and development of the Fryazino part of the Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was made by the deputy directors of the IRE RAS V.P. Belyansky and Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor N.A. Armand, who later became the head of FIDE. Now the Fryazino part of the IRE functions as a Fryazino branch of the state budgetary institution of science V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics. Russian Academy of Sciences (FIRE). FIRE occupies a land plot of 62 hectares and includes an administrative building, 6 laboratory buildings, a waveguide and polygon building, a plazmatron building, a boiler house, a garage and a number of other technical facilities. Currently, about 800 employees work in the Fryazino branch of the IRE RAS, including 340 research workers, including 1 academician, 57 doctors of science, 193 candidates of science. Director of the Fryazino branch of the IRE RAS is Dr.Sc. V.M. Smirnov, who succeeded in this post A.I. Panas, headed FIRE for 10 years.
The main task of the Institute and its branches is fundamental and applied research in the field of radio engineering, radiophysics, electronics and computer science in the following fields:
- radiophysical studies of planets and outer space
- remote sensing of terrestrial cover
- propagation of radio waves and electrodynamics of various media and structures;
- statistical radiophysics;
- generation of electromagnetic oscillations
- nonlinear dynamics and dynamic chaos
- biomedical electronics and computer science
- optoelectronics and fiber optics
- physical acoustics and acoustoelectronics
- physics of magnetic phenomena and magnetoelectronics
- condensed physics state of the art;
- semiconductor physics and semiconductor electronics;
- molecular electronics;
- the technology of new materials and structures for radio engineering and electronics
- micro- and nanoelectronics
- superconductor electronics
- computer science, telecommunications, radar.
During its existence, the Institute employees were awarded 2 prizes of the European Physical Society, 2 Lenin prizes, 28 State Prizes of the USSR and the Russian Federation, 6 Prizes of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Government of the Russian Federation, 3 Lenin Komsomol Prizes , 6-nominal gold medals of the Academy of Sciences, 5 nominal prizes of the Academy of Sciences, diplomas for 8 discoveries. Below are some of the achievements of the Institute.
Radiolocation of planets. In 1961-1982. A series of radar studies of the Venus, Mars, Mercury and Jupiter planets was carried out, which allowed to obtain unique results on a number of parameters (ephemerides) of these planets and to establish the value of an astronomical unit equal to 149597868 + 0.6 km, which determines the scale of the solar system. Regular radar measurements of the distance to the planets Venus, Mars, and Mercury formed the basis of a single relativistic theory of planetary motion used to predict the flights of interplanetary stations. This theory makes it possible to predict the relative position of the planets and the Sun with an error of 100-1000 times less than previous theories based on data of only optical observations. Radar observations made it possible to establish the period and direction of rotation, as well as the physical nature of the Venus surface covered by a dense cloud layer. It turned out that Venus rotates in the opposite direction compared to other planets, making one revolution in 8 months.
(Lenin Prize - 1964, State Prize - 1982, scientific supervisor - academician V. A. Kotelnikov)
Mapping the surface of Venus. From using spacecraft & la Venera-15 & raquo; and "Venus-16", orbited into the orbits of the satellites of Venus, radar mapping of the northern hemisphere of the surface of Venus above 30 ° was carried out between October 16, 1983 and July 10, northern latitude with a total area of ??115 million square kilometers. and high-quality images of the surface of Venus with a spatial resolution of 1-2 km and height profiles with an accuracy of 30 m were obtained. IRE RAS belongs to the initiative and the main idea of ??a unique experiment. IRE RAS jointly with OKB MEI has developed and created radically new radar equipment for the implementation of this experiment. Complexes of algorithms and programs for the synthesis of radar images and the construction of maps by the digital method were developed at IRE RAS. The processing of the results of the experiment was carried out in the Computing Center specially created in the Fryazino part of the IRE for these purposes. In 1989, the first in the history of science, "Atlas of the surface of Venus" was published on the basis of the obtained radar maps in the Main Department of Geodesy and Cartography at the Council of Ministers of the USSR. This experiment made it possible to establish the basic geological forms of the relief of Venus.
(Lenin Prize - 1986, State Prizes - 1986, 1989, the Lenin Komsomol Prize - 1985, the scientific supervisor of works is Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Rzhiga O. N.)
The radar of asteroids. In December 1992, the first radar studies of the asteroid - the near-Earth object 4179 Tautatis, for which a 6 cm wide system of Evpatoria (transmitting the 70th antenna) - Effelsberg, Germany (receiving 100-m antenna). The unusual, bifurcated structure of the asteroid and its anomalously slow rotation with a period of about 7 days are determined, the radiophysical parameters of the surface layer are determined - the effective cross section, the radar albedo and the polarization ratio.
In June 1995, the first radiolocation celestial body, a near-Earth asteroid of 1991 JX, using the 3.5-cm intercontinental Goldstone system, the US (transmitting the 70th antenna) -Evpatoria and Kashima, Japan (reception of the 70th and 34th antennas, respectively). It is established that the asteroid is an angular body with extreme dimensions of 560 m at 440 m, where comparatively flat faces and distinct boundaries predominate, which is typical for the fragment of a larger celestial body. The polar silhouette of the asteroid was synthesized, and a number of high-precision measurements of the radial velocity were obtained, which entered the database for a stable orbit forecast for an interval of up to 700 years. In honor of the first intercontinental radiolocation of the celestial body, the International Astronomical Union assigned the asteroid name 6489 Golevka, according to the first syllables of the above-mentioned long-range space communication stations.
In December 2001, the first two-frequency radar of the celestial body, the near-Earth asteroid 1998 WT24, was carried out at wavelength 6.0 cm (Evpatoria-Medicina, Italy) and 3.5 cm (Goldstone-Medicina). An unusual combination of an abnormally high order of unity, a polarization ratio, and a low, not more than 15%, radar albedo of the surface layer, giving grounds for speculating on the comet-like character of the surface of this object. It is established that the lower limit of the dimensions of the asteroid 1998 WT24 is 410 m, and its shape is close to spherical, quite rare among such small celestial bodies. p>
(The scientific supervisor of the work is A. Zaitsev, Dr. Sc.).
Radiometry of natural resources. Microwave radiometric sounding of the atmosphere and terrestrial cover from satellite and airborne radio laboratories. The created technique and technique of radiometric measurements made it possible to effectively measure the physicochemical and ecological parameters of water in the water areas and the ocean surface, ice and snow cover, soil moisture and groundwater level, biometric characteristics of plant coverings, and the like. The method was tested in satellite experiments (AES Cosmos-1151, 1500, 1602, Intercosmos-20, 21, etc.) and in aircraft experiments in organizations of various departments (USSR Minvodkhoz, Gosagroprom, Goskomgidromet), and also in various countries of near and far abroad (Moldova, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Bulgaria, Hungary, USA). The method is characterized by high speed of obtaining information about natural resources on large areas. For example, the productivity of soil moisture survey from an AN-2 plane is 1000-1500 ha per hour.
(State Prize - 1983, the scientific supervisors of the works are Doctor of Engineering N.A. Armand, Dr.Shutko AM)
Acoustoelectronics. The scientific foundations of physical acoustoelectronics are developed, and the elemental base on the principles of acoustoelectronics is developed and widely implemented. It is proposed to use surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and layered structures of the piezoelectric semiconductor in electronics. A new type of surface acoustic waves is predicted and discovered - purely shear surfactants (Gulyaev-Bleustein waves). The acoustomagnetoelectric effect is discovered (opening No. 133). A nonlinear theory of the acoustoelectronic interaction is developed, as well as a nonlinear theory of the acoustooptic interaction in conducting and active media. SAW-converters with capacitive weighing of electrodes are proposed. Methods of acoustic microscopy and acoustic thermography are developed. Acoustoelectronic and acoustooptical instruments have been developed and introduced into practice: filters, delay lines, convolvers, resonators, sensors, spectro-analyzers, modulators, frequency splitters, etc.
(European Physical Society Award 1979, 1974, 1983, 1984, 1987, 1993, the scientific adviser - academician Yu .Gulyaev )
Magnetoelectronics. The scientific foundations of physical magnetoelectronics, in particular spin-wave electronics, have been developed. The microwave properties of ferromagnets, propagation of spin waves in magnetic materials and layered structures, magnet-semiconductor, magnetic superconductor, magneto-optical phenomena are investigated. Developed tunable filters and nonreciprocal elements for frequencies up to 80-100 GHz. A nonlinear theory of the interaction of spin waves with electrons in magnetic semiconductors and layered structures of the magnet-semiconductor is developed, "magnetic superconductor". A number of new materials for magneto-optical applications, in particular, lutetium-bismuth garnet, are proposed. The phenomenon of dynamic self-organization of the magnetic moment in thin magnetic films is revealed.
(State Prize - 1988, the scientific supervisors - academician Yu.V. Guliaev, doctor of science A. Vashkovsky, F.V. Lisovskiy, P.E. Zilberman)
From the achievements of recent years, the following can be noted:
- A series of acoustic sonar systems for seafloor surveying has been developed to measure its relief at various depths with high accuracy (together with Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the State Navigation and Hydrographic Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.
- An eclipsing method for global control of the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere is developed. A model of interplanetary and near-solar plasma and propagation conditions of radio waves through these media is created. A summary analysis of the scattering of radio waves by the Moon, Mars, and Venus was carried out.
- Based on an analysis of the large amount of experimental data provided by the European Science Centers to the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2005 the fundamental scientific result, winds in the plane of the solar equator vary insignificantly even during the 11-year cycle of solar activity, which is associated with the stability of near-equatorial magnetic fields controlling the behavior of solar wind in contrast to high-latitude and polar areas where the magnetic field and the characteristics of the solar wind can vary dramatically. The weak variability of the equatorial solar wind is a favorable factor for the course of biological processes on our planet, which moves in the ecliptic plane close to the equatorial plane of the sun.
- The vertical displacements of the Yamburg-Nyda main gas pipeline are detected and measured using satellite radar interferometry; in the permafrost zone due to melting processes, as well as frost heaving of the underlying soil at a displacement amplitude of centimeter scale.
- Manufactured by the « drilling » microstructural (hole) single-mode optical fibers of the type фото photonic crystals, with a strength not inferior to standard fibers.
- Information technologies based on dynamic chaos for the transmission, processing, storage and protection of information in telecommunication systems and computer networks. The method of digital information transmission providing high stealth and noise immunity of the communication channel is realized, as well as the protection of transmitted confidential information.
- The outline design of the long-wave planetary radar designed for revealing the deep structure of the soil, study of the relief, estimation of dielectric properties and the density of Phobos at various depths along the flight path of the spacecraft, Phobos-Grunt,
- As a result of the airborne experiments to determine the hydrolysis in the desert regions of Central Asia and the assessment of the depth of groundwater in the Volga delta, the possibility of using a multifrequency side-scan radar for layer-by-depth sounding of terrestrial surfaces was confirmed.
- Vector equations describing the relationship of radio wavefronts with radio wave fields within the three-dimensional inhomogeneous medium. The equations take into account the polarization properties of radio signals and can be used to develop polarized radio holographic methods for studying natural environments from satellites.
In addition, it should be noted that:
- The IRE RAS has been created and operates on-line in the network of the International Data Exchange System CEOSnet Center for processing and storing space information (CGKI IRE), the hardware and software of which are operationally and functionally fully compatible with the EOSDIS V0 system.